Impact of Greenhouse Gases on Environment

Introduction: The term “greenhouse” was first used by Nils Gustaf Ekholm (Swedish meteorologist) in 1901. Greenhouses gases are surrounding the earth atmosphere to prevent the loss of heat into outer space. These gases are essential to sustain life on earth.
Abundance of Greenhouse Gases in the atmosphere due to Anthropogenic activities is dangerous to life on earth: The global community is facing the issue of increase concentration of greenhouse gases which have ultimate repercussions on human life and our natural climate.

The UN climate conference of Paris agreed by I95 countries to reduce the emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. The aim was to limit the global temperature below 2 ÂșC (relative to pre-industrial climate). According to Climatologist the increase concentration of greenhouse gases in atmosphere due to human activities (burning of fossil fuel and deforestation) are warming the planet earth. These gases act a glass of a greenhouse which allows the sunlight to ent…

Ocean Acidification, Causes of Ocean Acidification,How aquatic life affect from ocean acidification? Conclusion.

What is Ocean Acidification? Ocean acidification occurs due to the change in ocean chemistry which happens due to the uptake of atmospheric chemicals like carbon, sulfur and nitrogen (John et al., 2008). The anthropogenic releases of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the dominant cause of ocean acidification while in several coastal areas, sulfur and nitrogen are also significant (Doney et al., 2007).
Ocean is a sink of Carbon: Ocean absorbs atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).
Carbon capture and storage is called carbon sequestration.
Oceans capture and stores carbon from atmosphere.
Causes of Ocean Acidification: For the past 200 years, the rapid increase in anthropogenic atmospheric CO2, which directly leads to decreasing ocean pH through air–sea gas exchange, has been and continues due to the following reasons.
The rapid increase in the atmospheric CO2 in the past 200 years due to anthropogenic activities is the leading factor in decreasing ocean pH due to air and sea gas exchange. The primar…

Groundwater Contamination (Sources and Health Impacts)

Water is paramount for the survival of both plants and animals (Vanloon and Duffy, 2005). The earth’s 97.5% water is saline and only 2.5% is fresh water and 68.9% of the freshwater is locked in ice caps and glaciers and 29.9% of freshwater is found in sub surface (Ashraf, 2015). In developed countries 95% population having access to safe drinking water and 90% population has sufficient sanitation facility (Amin et al., 2012). Almost 50% groundwater used in cities is obtaining from wells, boreholes and springs. One fifty million population of Latin American’s and greater than 1000 million Asian are depending on groundwater (Clarke et al., 1995). Groundwater contamination is a very noteworthy environmental concern of the time (Momodu and Anyakora, 2010). Regardless of its importance, groundwater resource is not properly managing (Fakayode, 2005). There are various probable sources of groundwater pollution in cities including point, non-point and linear sources. Point sources include ind…

Acid Rain (Effects on Plants, Harmful effects on Aquatic Life, Effects on Human Health, Effects on Soil, Effects on the Built Environment) Conclusion

Effect on Plants: An acid rain damage plant leaves (Necrosis). It leaches the minerals or nutrients from soil through surface runoff and effects the growth and development of agricultural crops and forest.

Harmful Effects on Aquatic Life: Acid rain increased acidity in water bodies It stops hatching of fish eggs It changes the population ratio of fish It affects the ecosystem Effects on Human Health: Acid rain can cause Asthma and Bronchitis disease. In atmosphere both SO2 and NOx reacts to form fine sulfate and nitrate particles that can inhaled into the lungs. Effects on Soil: Acid rain affects the chemistry of soil and availability of minerals in the soil. Nutrients availability has strong relation with soil ph. When pH of water decreases metals solubility decreases. Acid rain leaches the mineral ions through surface runoff or it pushes deeper in the soil and finally plants roots cannot get minerals from deeper horizons of soil which affects their growth. Effects on the Built Environment: Ca…

Acid Rain (Brief History, Measuring Acid Rain: How it can be determined if rain is acid rain, Acid Rain Formation, Causes and Sources of Acid Rain, Dry and Wet Deposition)

Brief History: The term acid rain was coined by Robert Angus Smith (Scottish pharmacist) in Manchester, England in 1872. He noticed high level of acidify in rain falling over industrial area of England as compared to less polluted areas near the coast. Little attention was given to his work until 1950s, when biologist observed the decline of fish population in the lakes of southern Norway and finally traced the problem of acid rain. Similar finding were also noticed in 1960s in North America. These finding spurred intense research to understand the origin of the acid rain phenomena.
Measuring Acid Rain: (How it can be determined if rain is acid rain) Acid rain is measured in pH scale. Acid rain is one of the most serious environmental problem emerged due to air pollution. Normal or unpolluted rainfall has a pH of 5.6 because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid.
CO2 + H2O    H2CO3 (carbonic acid).
The term acid rain is applied to any t…

Noise Pollution (Auditory Health Effects, Non-auditory Health Effects)

The effects of noise pollution depends on the susceptibility of individual, nature of the noise and duration of exposure.
Impact of noise on human health can be classified into following categories.
1- Auditory Health Effects
2- Non-auditory Health Effects
1- Auditory Health Effects: Noise pollution causes hearing loss: Hearing loss results from prolonged exposure to high noise levels.
Reduced hearing sensitivity: Exposure to occupational noise can significantly reduce hearing sensitivity.
2- Non-auditory Health Effects: Non-auditory health effects of noise pollution are as following: 1- Mental Health Effects
2- Sleep Disturbances
3- Hypertension
4- Low Performance
5- Cardiovascular and Physiological Effects 1- Mental Health Effects:     Noise in industry can be a direct cause of general health problems. It can create conditions of psychological stress, which can in turn cause physiological stress reactions. 2- Sleep Disturbances:     It has been found that more sleeping medicines are con…

Effects of Soil Pollution (Effects on Human Health, Effects on Growth of Plant, Decreased Soil Fertility, Toxic Gases, Changes in Soil Structure)

The effects of soil pollution can be categorized in to following  types.
1) Effects on Human Health
2) Effects on Growth of Plant
3) Decreased Soil Fertility
4) Toxic Gases
5) Changes in Soil Structure 1) Effects on Human Health: Soil pollution can have a number of harmful effects on human health. The harmful effects of soil pollution may come from direct contact with polluted soil or from contact with other resources, such as water, that have come in direct contact with the polluted soil. Plants that are grown in polluted soil continuously absorb the pollutants. Animals who eat these plants take on all the pollutants that plants have accumulated. Humans who eat vegetables and animals  that have accumulated large amounts of soil pollutants may be poisoned.
2- Effects on Growth of Plant:
Most plants are unable to adopt when the chemistry of the soil changes so radically in a short period of time. The fertility slowly diminishes, making land unsuitable for agriculture and any local vegetat…